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    Dynamics of Jaipongan in West Java from 1980-2010

    by: Een Herdiani

    UCSC Gamelan: 40 Years Sundanese and Cirebon Arts In Indonesia and Beyond
    Friday, May 13-14 May 2016 at UCSC Theatre Arts Second Stade

    Abstract

    Jaipongan is a style of Sundanese dance that began to be known in the 1980s and resulted from the creativity of the Bandung artist Gugum Gumbira who, inspired by a folk arts festival, developed ketuk tilu, which is a genre traditionally associated with the female courtesan singer-dancers who perform for and with male partners in social dance. Gugum worked the form into a performance oriented stage dance and, after positive feedback, developed other related choreographies, calling the genre jaipongan. "Kesar Bojong" was a very popular early choreography and jaipongan's dynamic movement and music made the form very popular in the community. However, from a government perspective the form was criticized as too sensual and exploiting the female body. There were calls to disallow it in the Bupati (regent/governor's) office. However the community embraced and felt ownership of the genre. Hence, it became widely known and appreciated. "Jaipongan Fever" had caught on everywhere and jaipongandance groups sprouted in many
    places. The genre had impact on a variety of other arts and brought the almost extinct ketuktilugenres back from the brink. Jaipongan continues to evolve in movement, music, and costume. It developed from a folk art, but became a strong influence on that folk art itself. For example baijidoran, a ketuk tilu genre of the Subang area of West Java, first helped inspire jaipongan and then was inspired by jaipongan creating a new style of bajidor. In 2010 various parties found this new style too salacious and the bupati called on performers to to present less provacative performance. This paper will address the links between jaipongan, social life, and politics exploring what is "up" with this popular dance of the people.


    A. Introduction

    Jaipongan is a genre of Sundanese dance born in the 1980s, spearheaded by GugumGumbira, a Bandung artist-bureaucrat who was inspired by the democratic aesthetic of Sundanese folk dance. The genre grew from folk art in the pakelaran or north coast area (Subang and Karawang) where sinden (female singers) hold a dominant role in the traditional art called bajidoran, a form that takes its name from the macho male fans (bajidor) who use martial arts dance style as they dance with and reward the female singer-dancers with sawer(tips). Gugum captured the spirit of the bajidor male dancersandpasinden'susik(manner, ethic), adeg-adegpangadeg (stance and dancing form), and paroman(facial expression).

    Jaipongan's democratic accessibility was almost universally embraced by the Sundanese. As both positive and some negative responses came, GumbiraGugum waxed even more creative. The fast growing jaiponganof the 1980s was supported by social, economic, political expansion of a period "favorable" especially in the field of economic development and this fueled the arts as well as other fields.

    Jaipongan grabbed the imagination of people from all walks of life and class levels, growing rapidly in a short period and reaching local, regional, and international audiences. The local went national and global. In the 1980s-90s, a cultural explosion took as the form hit the peak of its popularity. The genre cannot be separated from GugumGumbira'sJugala Group that modeled the genre. Jaipongandance fever blazed everywhere and jaiponganstudios appeared on every corner in West Java. The dynamic drumming and brash dancing permeated other performing arts.

    Since that time there have, of course, been changes in choreography, music, and costuming as society itself has changed. In the movement's wake, the folk arts which inspired jaipongan have, in turn, been inspired by it. I will discuss the sustainability of this thirty-five year old art and regional differences in its practice.

    B. The Birth of Jaipongan

    KetukTilu (literally "three gong") music and dance was a looked-down-upon folk art, which reflected, as does all art, the social life of its community and period in both pragmatic and symbolic ways, Gugum, as an artist was aware of the environment in which this ealier village-level art of farmer/workers who were dazzled by lovely female singer-dancers of ketuk tilu in which performers would, after opening solo or group dances, sing and dance with audiuence members who gave tips to their chosen partner, bajidor is of course one example of a wider set of forms that all show the mark of ketuktilu. Gugum knew the art was created by and reflected that agricultural society, but he was also a person of his own time and social situation—a modern, educated Bandung urbanite who worked in a government cultural department. Via interpretation and reconstruction, he re-envisioned the earlier situation to make a new art.

    Gugum's exploration that resulted in jaipongan began as a research to enrich himself artistically. He dealt directly with the varied form of folk performing arts in Sunda that were active in the 1950-80s, but, indeed, he already had earlier experiences of it, since from childhood Gugum was introduced to pencaksilat (martial arts dance/fighting display) and ketuktilu (social dance) by his father. Gugum traveled to the various areas in West Java, from Sumedang, Garut, Cianjur, Tasik, Ciamis, Kuningan, Indramayu, and Cirebon, up to TambunBekasi. In Subang he found kliningan or bajidoran, the local variant of ketuktilu. In this form, ketuk tilu singing backed up the dancing by the bajidor performers. He saw the bright improvised comedy and movement and in the lively folk theater topeng banyet of Karawang (popular theatre of the Bekasi area near Jakarta) with themes of heroism and Pentul, a featured energetic masked clown. Gugum gathered such elements into his protrayals. His male dancers would exhude the humor, martial power, and bravado of the Sundanese male.

    Pencaksilat martial arts with musical accompaniement of drums (kendang and kulanter) gong (kempul), and oboe (serunai) are found in all areas of West Java and pencak movement is always an aspect of ketuktiluperformance, especially for the male dancer. Almost every district in Sunda has their set of drums for this art. The fast padungdung, section, where the opponents improvise to brisk music as they spar, inspired Gugum with the freedom of gesture.

    So, he was inspired by the tremendously energic drumming of bajidoranand topengbanyet. This accompaniment, he felt, could fuel movements which audiences would appreciate. One of dance's powers comes from auditory stimuli . suggests that often a choreographers desire to use a particular song because it gives them the idea for adance.

    Ketuktilu dance was resource but did not delimit choreogaphy, which was freely developed. Gugum Gumbira did not work alone, but was assisted by NandangBarmaya, a dalang (puppet master) and adept musican who taught at the High School of Performing Arts in Bandung (Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia), Saleh Natasendjaya (Gugum Gumbira Martial Art and Ketuk Tilu teacher), and Suwanda (a Sundanese traditional drumer). The three presented their ketuk tilu pekembang ("developed ketuktilu") at a Tari Rakyat (Folk Dance) Festival in West Java in 1974 at Bandung's Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building), sponsored by the Governor of West Java Solihin GP.

    The dance was then called 'ketuk tilu perkembangan' since most of the accompaniment still used the traditional drum patterns, even though the movement was new. TjetjePadmadinata, a politician and art observor, in an early conference speech said, "The source for jaipongan is ketuk tilu our own folk-social dance, ketuk tilu jaipongan is growing and needs to be supported by the community".

    In addition to gestures from ketuktiluand pencaksilat, GugumGumbira included footwork from cha-cha-cha and moves from rock 'n' roll or the twist, fusing the diverse gestures into a single dynamic unit. In his "developed" jaipongandance the drum patterns largely followed the rhythm of the motion. There was initially a tug-of-war between Gugum's ideas and those working on the karawitan(music). Gugum desired to break tradition to make something new, but despite the novel movement, the music mostly used structures and patterns of older ketuktilu.

    Over time, there was an increasingly harmonious working together between Gugum and the musical composers, giving birth to a new trend in Sundanese music from his accompaniment, which included an introduction, middle, and end. The introduction of Gugum was the music of arang-arang, the opening tune sequencefrom ketuktilu, but rather than just leaving it instrumental, as in tradition, Gugum introduced dance, something not previously done. Drumming was accentuated within the gamelan tune and more definative. This brought a new strain into Sundanese music and became characteristic of jaipongan as opposed to the source music from traditional ketuktilu.

    In addition to the musical element there was jaipongan costuming. Gugum was inspired by the ronggeng / sinden style from kaleranon the north coast, especially clothing from bajidoran- kliningansinger-dancers that for him represented the essence of Sundanese feminitiy as his dance "Keser Bojong" was being choreographed and the music composed, Gugum and his wife, singer Euis Komariah, planned the costume: traditional Sundanese kebaya (blouse) and sinjang (skirt wrap). The simplicity of Sundanese traditional clothing was made more glamorous by a few sequins on the side of kebaya or sinjang.

    Jaiponganin West Java appeared at a time of socio-cultural change from an agrarian to an industrial society. The agricultural society had traditional rituals (ketuk tilu was associated with rain and fertility) to insure good crops and the spare time to enjoy all night performances of ketuk tilu, to provide release from the boredom of the day-to-day routine. When society industrialized, free time became more constrained since people had to meet set work schedules. They no longer had time for prolonged performances and their entertainmens needed to be light and presented in a shorter time.

    The paradigm change an agrarian to an industrial society changed the arts and a devluation of ritual and older arts took place. Artists had to responce. In West Java we are to the present still experiencing this transitional period in search of a new identity and this greatly affects the life of the arts. As in other parts of the world at this transition, many artists who hope to enter the mainstream of a new mass culture may tend toward kitsch that utilizes sexual attraction, sensation, sentiment, and the glamorous to attract (Kayam, 1986: 5). Jaipongan as envisioned by Gugum Gumbira avoided this, but, as my discussion will indicate, his imitators have fallen into this trap and even his work has not been without controversy.

    C. The Beginning of Jaipongan

    The term jaipongan was first used in1978, when Gugum Gumbira make his "Keser Bojong", which, in sound and gesture, largely followed partterns of traditional ketuk tilu, but incorporated essences from martial arts and various folk dances (Kurniati, 1995: 50). This dance takes its name from a song, especially made for the accompaniment, noted for its vocal and instrumental blend, "Daun Pulus Keser Bojong". "Keser Bojong" caused protest in various circles of society. Many considered the dance of full-figured TatihSaleh, the female dancer featured, erotic and element of "3Gs" (gitek[move the buttocks], geol [undulate the waist area], and goyang [sway the hips]). Reactions from various sectors was sensational, but this "3Gs" does not really exist as a concept in jaipongandance, it is just in the minds of the beholders. As a result, H. Aang Kunaefi who served as Governor of West Java at the time spoke a ban on presenting jaipongan for official events at the governor's office or Gedung Pakuan, the offical place to entertain for state banquets

    On the other hand, jaipongan was warmly recieved by the middle to lower class. Sundanese flocked to study the dance. Speeches for and against it were heard everywhere from coffee stalls to officials conference halls Thethe midst of the polemics, the artists and students were continuing to develop the genre.

    For example Bappeda (BadanPerancanaan Pembangunan Daerah, Office of Development Planning) of West Java had a seminar on jaipongan including the technocrats and polititions and the headline of the Pikiran Rakyat article was "Are the 3 "Gs" Until Then Potshots at Jaipongan by Bappeda of West Java Engages Technocrats and Politicians. The author Suyudi wrote:

    This opens a surprizing new chapter in history. An agency which usually discusses development issues is suddently talking about art. This major honor is merited by a folk genre from the Karawang area, jaipongan. In a seminar including the technocrat Ateng Syafrudin, Polititian Tjetje Padmahidayat, culture officials, artists, students, youth leaders, those training in music and dance and others, all are discussing "Is Jaipongan rooted in the 3 Gs that West Java's Governor Aang Kunaefi Is worried about Is it improper and against Sundanese morality.

    In general, the conference speakers welcomed jaipongan. According GugumGumbira . . .[h]ip movements in jaipongan arise naturally from the leg movement techniques, even if it [hips] seem to sway, there is no intention other than show the flexibility of the female [dancer]

    When a change of culture occurs, criticism, conflict, and change often come with deviation from older values Thus as jaipongan emerged it was charged with exploiting erotocism, however jaipongan'sdevelopment contributed much to the artistic life of West Java.

    Jaipongan creatively contributed to paradigm shifts in Sundanese dance, promoting creativity and showing suitablity for a literate audience. West Java has been an open society that easily accepted other cultures, so in the1900s during the Dutch East Indies control, Sundanese arts may have shifted too easily and folk arts with ritual function(i.e., ketuktilu) became entertainment in which ronggeng entertainers were looked down upon as courtesans, especially by the elite at Dutch plantations. I feel this foreign influence impacted the treatment of this art.

    With the intermingling of between western and local values in West Java, the modern society developed with increased education and industrialization in all fields. The Dutch ethical policy to modernize and westernize the elite via education had impact in all areas, including in dance. Bandung as a cultural center in West Java, was particularly affected and mimicked modern Dutch society, developing the mentality of the individual, contributing to the collapse of a living tradition of dance and folk arts. More nuanced religious practices, including ketuktilu as a rice harvest ritual, transformed toward secular arts concerned purely with entertainment and spectacle.

    Jaipongan in the 1980s became identical to the art of the ordinary people, penetrating the various levels of society. Children, youths, and parents were pulled by the drum rhythm to move their bodies. Jaipongan courses were found almost in every RW (rukunwarga) neighborhood unit, as if people had refound their very soul. This was unlike other cultural activities that often left out reflections the common people.

    Gugum Gumbira's Jugala Group trained those who wanted to learn jaipongan. The group, founded on May 19, 1976, was a continuation of the DewiPramanik Group established ten years earlier and this company was the source of the new developing ketuk tilu. It also ran Jugala's recording studio. Jugala was hailed as the "Self-proclaimed KetukTilu Recording Center" Jugala Group's mission was to develop the arts of Sunda, especially jaipongan, to be more fully appreciated by the public and to promote training in the art. Beginning in 1980 Gugum Gumbira established dance studios all over West Java in Bandung, Jakarta, Sumedang, Ciamis, Bogor, Sukabumi, Tasik, etc.

    As Jaipongan became popular, other entrepreneurs exploited the situation to their advantage. There was a proliferation of dance studios with entertainment wings presenting jaipongan /ketuktilu as events' entertainment. In areas of Bandung including Tegal Lega, Cicadas, Bandung's Central Square, and Dalem Kaum Road, dance studios were bursting with ketuktilu / jaipongan atudents. The multiplication of studios lowered the level of jaipongan dance performances, so painstakingly elevated by Gugum Gumbira to become works of artistic interity. The values and technical levels plummented. Dancers eroticized appearance and loose behavior stained the art. Us Tiarsa express concerns that in an article in Pikiran Rakyat. After a Dramatic Crash in Level, KetukTiluDance Is Appreciated from "Grassroots" to "Salon"

    If you want to see original Sundanese dance no further than ketuk tilu. Clearly, ketuktilu folk dance is very popular with the Sundanese people. It is the most discussed. Ketuk tilu's excesses have been "attacked" by public moralists. Said to be "too much" by women's groups. Said to be "too much" when the nation denounces all things that smack of foreign influence. Dancing is prohibited. People seek to find their national identity. Appoint ketuktilu as our social dance.... [The song/dances] "Si Oplet", "Si Geboy", "Si Leunyay", danced under a bamboo roof with excitment to honor the ancestors has now long been replaced by young women dancing with the officials. The site is not under the thatched bamboo roof and in the shadows of a three pronged oncer (lamp), but in a fancy building at the luxurious party of an official with flashing lights and disco balls, as ketuk tilu becomes a salon dance. Values decline and the dance where motion had rules of decorum becomes just jerking around.

    Gugum Gumbira's incentive was to upgrade jaipongan, he did not lower the value of the art. But, with mass popularity, the struggle of jaipongan was increasingly uphill, especially after it was attacked in print media. Similarly, when jaipongan appeared on TVRI Jakarta, in 1980, there was impact. Gugum Gumbira's name became known to the public and quickly he and jaiponganemerged on the world stage of dance. Gugum choreographic work has been compared with predecessors in modernizing Indonesian genres—for example, Huriah Adam who popularized Sumatran dance or Bagong Kusudiardjo who innovated in Central Java.

    C. Development of Jaipongan (1980-2010)

    Resulting from economic development there was increased funding for Indonesian government "cultural diplomacy" tours that helped raise artistic levels (Lubis et al., 2003: 429-430). In 1986, the Indoneisan government committed to promoting tourism as Pesident Suharto opened the meeting of the Ministry of Tourism, Post, and Telecommunications on 26 September 1986 and he included funding various art forms.

    This helped GugumGumbira'sjaipongan. Jaipongan festivals were held by the department of culture. In the decade of the 1980s there was remarkable development in the community. At the same hosts from lower to upper class would be dissatisfied if their circumcision or wedding celebration did not include jaipongan with the guests dancing at the celebratory event.

    Gugum was not always dictating the aesthetic: some works were "made to order." As an example, Governor AangKunaefi asked for a refined dance that did not have the purported "vulgarity" "Kesar Bojong" .Gugum immediately came up "Setra Sari' (1980) to the song "Serat Salira". This dance appeased critics. Sampurno even compared it to srimpi, the refined Javanese court dance Gugum did not sell out by following the government's call. True aesthetic values prevailed, even in the song lyrics of this work, as compared to other songs in Gugum oevre;

    The first dances of Gugum only feauredthe celebrations of youthful vigor or beauty of mojangPriangan (i.e. young women of the Priangan highlands), but when making "Rawayan" (1987) he introduced a more specific dance theme via music, costume, and movement. The costume, for instance, was no longer Sundanese rural dress with kebaya top and body-tight wrapped skirt, which delimited the movement. "Rawayan" costumes allowed more freedom to move, in accordance with needs of the choreography. The music was also different.

    The popularity of jaipongan spread thoughout the archipelago as arts of West Java were borrowed by other genres. For example the popular comedy group Srimulat in 1982 included jaiponganin dances of DjudjukDjuniarah its noted primadonna-comedian-film star from Central Java. Candra Kirana Orchestra, the modern ensemble noted for jazz and pop included jaiponganin instrumental music by composer and song writer ElfaSecioria. Choreographer Faida Faisol who trained in classical ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow and introduced ballet as a national dance, found jaipongan more appropriate as a resource in seeking a national dance that other genres. She made the DaunPulus (Pulus Leaves) ballet which played from November 21-December 1, 1983 at the Festival of Ballet at the Taman Ismail Marzuki theatre complex in Jakarta.

    In 1992, the Gugum developed the theme of a heroic, refined female character in his work. He maintained the movements and music from padungdung. By adopting this theme, dancers were expected to express in dancing the familar ideas associated therein. Ati was a refined character that tried to reveal tenderness in the heroic atmosphere. "KawungAnten" was a figure consistent with the dance character chosen. "KawungAnten" shows a youthful heroine who has the spirit of a leader. The theme was explored purely in movement. Gugum's thematic dances, had to have dancers who could portray the intent, so the demands he put on them were heavy. "Rawayan" and "KawungAnten can be danced as solos or with multiple dancers. These new themes and different costumes, which may have western models (as in "Rawayan" movement-friendly grab) are significant changes.

    Gugum's concept was renewal by adding innovative moves. He was not revolting against tradition. Instead his creativity gave rise to an genre well accepted by society, that elaborated on older pattern without losing the essence of the past. He even collaborated for the traditional song "BotolKecap" (Ketchup Bottle) with the female singer Bi Raspi, one of the only active performers of ronggenggunung a traditional ketuktilugenre of the Ciamis area.

    Jaiponganin West Java marked a new era in Sundanese movement and the folk genre has enhanced the general reputation of Sundanese dance. States this popular dance has attracted public attention by its dazzling drumming that stimulates kinetic energy in all who hear. He continued:

    It's been more than a decade since West Java arts (especially dance) have been moved by jaipongan. People have nostalgia for ketuktilu that we now barely remember. ... The emergence of jaipongan invited the attention of many people. Pros and cons to the dance came. At its peak the governor of West Java (at the time, AangKunaefi) questioned this dance, especially in relation to the 3 Gs (Gitek, Geol, and Shake) considering it vulgar, erotic, and sexually stimulating ... [But] it must be acknowledged that no dance genre has aroused Sundnese creativity as jaipongan has.... Gugum Gumbira managed to revive the spirit . . . of folk dance that has long been lost.

    Jaipongan has given great boost to Priangan artists, since many performers are motivated to explore neglected folk dances. Arts groups that had been virtually disfunct, revived. The influence of jaipongan on other arts inside or outside Sunda is notable. Degung jaipong, kacapi jaipong, calung jaipong, each of which uses a different type of musical ensemble to accompany jaipongan, and other genres proliforated. Jaipongan music elements are widespread with thekendang(drumming) of jaipongan especially distinctive. For example in the wayang golek panakawan (clowns) dance jaipongan, the performances of longser (a comic folk theatre) jaipongan incorporate elements of farce, and so on. Even the major Javanese puppet master DalangAnomSuroto in the 1990s incorporated elements of jaipongan drumming in his wayangkulitpuppetry and in the overture before his puppet performances AnomSuroto often starts with jaipongan dance.
    Jaiponganalso influenced other popular arts, including the art of dangdut(jaipongdangdut), tarling, campursari, and other genres. When the city of Bandung was full of breakdancing teenagers, jaipongan dancer from Jugala, AgahNugraha, combined jaipongan with breakdance, in what became known as breakpong (breakance-jaipongan), later AsepRangga, and Gondo further developed this relatively shortlived genre.

    Between 1980 and the mid 2000s, Jaipongan was always part of festive celebrations, both organized at the grassroots and by upper class groups. Jaipongan also had an impact also on the folk arts that were Gugum's source of creation jaipongan, especially on Subang and Karawang bajidoran. The kaleran artist community (Subang and Karawang) sees Gugum Gumbira's work as urban jaipongan and recognizes movement as well as musical elements of their art which they may not call bajidoran jaipongan.

    For example, groups insert jaipongan in their name, such as the Group Kokom Rengkak Jaipong, Ujang Lanay Jaipong Mandiri Jaya, Namin Group Jaipong Mandiri Jaya, and so on. Dancers of Karawang and Subang have fused urban jaipongan dance in their kaleranart.

    Dasef Arifin, one Gugum Gumbira colleagues, had a large part in developing jaipongan in Bogor and the capital, Jakarta. Dasef and Gugum trained other notable artists such as Camelia Malik, MBA Tutut, Ivo, and others. Looking to increasing public interest in jaipongan, Gugum Gumbira organized pasanggiri(festival contests) for the city (Bandung), the county, and even at the national level, evaluating the skill of artists.

    In West Java jaipongan has become an icon of Sundanese dance and state occasions always display jaipongan alongside other traditional arts. State dinners at the Pakuan Building and 'Gedung Sate', both official sites, entertain government bureaucrats and international guests. In Bandung five-star hotels such as Hotel Homan and Hotel Panghegar aprovide regular entertainments, featuring jaipongan along with other genres, twice a week. Jaipongan dance is well represented abroad, since artistic missions always include jaiponganas a mainstay. As Amsar Toto Suanda avers "no creativity in Sundanese dance outdoes jaipongan".

    Though jaipongan has been around for more than 30 years and is not as popular as it was from 1980-2000, it is still appreciated by the public. Still, interest maintains, mostly among youth from kindergarten to high school age. This is due to jaipongan dance festivals which are found everwhere. There is training from elementary to high school leves,l with an "achievement path' (jalurprestasi/japres). This allows youths training to become champion dancers. Another element which helps is the inclusion of the group Rumingkang in a talent contest for Indonesian children in a private television show in 2010 which raised jaiponganawareness in society again.

    Since 2005, the jaipongan works by GugumGumbira are rarely performed aside from "Rawayan" and "KawungAnten". Gugum works have been edged out by new choerographies by younger artist, such as Awan, Yanto, Mas NanuMunajar, Deni, Boy, AaSubrata, Gondo, and others.

    The choreography of jaipongan is still dominated by men, while the dancer is primarily female. Vigorous young choreographers creating works include Wawan (Awan) who trained at and then coached for Jugala. Since 1998 he has had his own group SekarPanggung. and created work beginning in 2004, including "Gandrung", "KembangBoled", "Waledan", , "KembangTanjung" , "Jali-jali", etc. According to Awan he has made approximately fifty dances, but lacks documentation and has himself now forgotten many works that have been made (Wawan, interview, Bandung, January 12, 2011). The lack of recording has resulted in choreographies being lost.

    With the expansion of new works jaipongan elicits an individual style in each creator in terms of choreography, music, costumes and dance. There have been sound collaborations with western pop music, with rock music, and so on. The drummers of Jugala have been invited to collaborate internationally in America, Europe, Australia, etc.

    Another interesting phenomenon is the return to the habitatual function of social dance. The main source of creation Ketuktilu, pencaksilat, topengbanjet, bajidoran) emphasized the partner dance. The creators converted the art into a dance piece that is a stage performing art that was to be watched and not entered into. But in its development Jaipongan accidentally moved back to its source function—when jaipongan played in hotels, for state guests, or at a celebratory event, the end of the show, always had the dancers engage enthusically, albeit momemtarily, in lively social dance with the audience members.

    And of course there was the emergence of "studios" that provide entertainment services for nightclubs (bars) with jaipongan, as with the Herlina Studio and PurwaSetra Group in Bandung city center of Bandung. Such studios are also found on the northern coast of West Java. In such sites social dance atmosphere and "sawer" (giving cash) to the dancers and tipping prevail and inappropiatetouching and so on occurs. Such an atmosphere that made ronggengarts devalued in the first place, reemerged as jaiponganhit the peak of popularity. Jaipongan, for those who lacked ethics, was exploited for commercial reasons in the bars and jaipongan dancers were sent to Japan to meet the demand for dancers in nightclubs linked with prostitution. This helps stigmatize the art.

    Closing

    Gugum raised folk art (ketuktilu, topengbanjet, pencaksilat, bajidoran) into an international art where the traditional aesthetic and modern values combined forging a new aesthetic in Sundanese popular dance with awareness of ethical issues. He read his time's social, political, economic, and ideological needs, and the general public accepted and supported his work which fit its needs and values.

    Jaipongan embodies modern Sundanese dance and is a Sundanese-style disco with music and movement dynamics that stimulate people to move. The jaipongan ofGugumGumbirainsprired growth in both in quality and quantity of dancing. While criticism continues, it can and should be clearly addressed as dialogue gives birth to a more dynamic art.
    Jaipongan came from the struggle of GugumGumbira to carve out a name for himself in the globalizing art scene in the Indonesian archipelago. GugumGumbira is a choreographer known by both the public and the bureacrats and he devleoped great performances for private and official events.

    By 2004 the creative works of a younger generation, students of GugumGumbira and others, dominated jaipongan with choreographies likeKembangBoled(Boled Flower), KembangTanjung, MaungLugay, LangitBiru (Blue Sky) and so on. Movement, music, and dynamics continue to change as the gesture becomes more free, with all body parts "alive". The style of jaipongan borrowed Karawang and Subangfeatured hip movements. With the call from the Governor of West to contain choreography and costumes that appealed to primarily the male gaze, the community of artists, while disappointed that their work was misunderstood, rallied to solve the issue via open dialogue between the Governor and artists.


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    SeniPertunjukandariPerspektifPolitik, Sosial, danEkonomi (Performance in the Political, Social, and Economic Perspective). Yogyakarta: GadjahMada University Press.

    Suyudi, 1981
    “Adakah 3 “G” di Sana? MakaTembuslahJaiponganSampaikeBappedaJabar,MelibatkanTeknokratdanPolitisi” (Are the 3 "Gs" Really There? Until Then Potshots at JaiponganBappeda of Jabar, Engage Technocrats and Politicians).Pikiran Rakyat [People's Opinion]47 [year XVI]. May 10, 1981: 1.

    Suyudi 1984.
    “SekaliLagiMengenaiJaiponganSoallatarBelakangdanPertumbuhannya” (Once Again About the Background and Development of Jaipongan). Pikiran Rakyat. 18 Jan. 1984 : 1, 7.

    Us Tiarsa, 1978.
    “AlamiPenurunanNilai Yang SangatDrastis, TariKetukTilu Makin Digemari, Dari "Lumpur” naikke "Salon” (After a Dramatic Crash in Level, KetukTiluDance Is Appreciated from "Grassroots" to "Salon" Pikiran Rakyat. 6 Desember 1978: 1.

    EtiRochaetiSoetisna, Interview, , Bandung, March 2, 2006;

    GugumGumbira, Interview, , Bandung, October 1, 2009

    Omik Ahmad Hidayat Interview, March 2, Bandung, 2006

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    Ket: Artikel tentang jaipongan ini dipresentasikan di UCSC Theatre Arts Second Stade, California, Amerika Serikat, Mei 2016.



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